Living roofs for healthier living? Impacts on employee stress, engagement, wellbeing and performance

Researchers: Dr Kate LeeA/Prof Nick WilliamsA/Prof Kathryn Williams

Funding: Dr Kate Lee was supported by a scholarship funded through the Cybec Foundation. Horticulture Innovation Australia (2015)

Key findings and recommendations

  • Neuroscience techniques provide direct empirical support for attention restoration theory.
  • A micro-break viewing a green, but not concrete roof city scene, sustains attention.
  • The green roof city scene is perceived as more restorative than concrete roof city scene.
  • Results suggest city nature is valuable for healthy cities and workplaces.



  • Lee K, Williams K, Sargent L, Williams N, Johnson K (2015), 40-second green roof views sustain attention: The role of micro-breaks in attention restoration. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 40: 182-189.
  • Lee, K. E., K. J. H. Williams, L. D. Sargent, C. Farrell, and N. S. G. Williams. 2014. Living roof preference is influenced by plant characteristics and diversity. Landscape and Urban Planning 122:152-159.


For more information please contact Kate Lee from the Green Infrastructure Research Group at

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