Journal Articles


Farrell C, Livesley SJ, Arndt SK, Beaumont L et al. (2022) Can we integrate ecological approaches to improve plant selection for green infrastructure? Urban For. Urban Green. 76, 127732.

Johnson KA, Pontvianne A, Ly V, Jin R, Januar JH, Machida K, Sargent LD, Lee KE, Williams NSG and Williams KJH (2022) Water and meadow views both afford perceived but not performance-based attention restoration: results from two experimental studies. Front. Psychol. 13:809629

Lee KE, Sargent LD, Williams KJH, Hall G and Williams NSG (2022) A collaborative learning model for a flourishing green roofs, walls and facades sector: Exploring two major Australian cities. Cities 131:103884

Rega-Brodsky CC, Aronson MFJ, Piana MR et al. (2022) Urban biodiversity: State of the science and future directions. Urban Ecosyst 25:1083–1096.

Saraeian Z, Farrell C and Williams NSG (2022) Green roofs sown with an annual plant mix attain high cover and functional diversity regardless of irrigation frequency. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening (2022) 73: 127594.

Tan HA, Harrison L, Nelson, J. et al. (2022) Designing and managing biodiverse streetscapes: key lessons from the City of Melbourne. Urban Ecosyst 25: 733–740

Thom JK, Livesley SJ, Fletcher TD, Farrell C, Arndt SK, Konarska J, et al. (2022) Selecting tree species with high transpiration and drought avoidance to optimise runoff reduction in passive irrigation systems. Science of The Total Environment 812: 151466. DOI:


Bush J, Ashley G, Foster B and Hall G (2021) Integrating Green Infrastructure into Urban Planning: Developing Melbourne’s Green Factor Tool. Urban Planning 6(1): 20–31

Cheung PK, Livesley SJ and Nice KA (2021) Estimating the cooling potential of irrigating green spaces in 100 global cities with arid, temperate or continental climates.  Sustainable Cities and Society 71:102974

Chu, H. -H. & Farrell, C. (2021). Fast plants have water-use and drought strategies that balance rainfall retention and drought survival on green roofs. Ecol. Appli. doi:10.1002/eap.2486.

Chung P, Livesley S, Rayner J and Farrell C (2021) Greywater irrigation can support climbing plant growth on building green façades. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 62.

Chung, P. -W., Livesley, S. J., Rayner, J. P. & Farrell, C. (2021). Rooting Volume Impacts Growth, Coverage and Thermal Tolerance of Green Facade Climbing Plants. LAND 10. doi:10.3390/land10121281.

Guo, B., Arndt, S., Miller, R., Lu, N. & Farrell, C. (2021). Are succulence or trait combinations related to plant survival on hot and dry green roofs? Urban For Urban Green. doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2021.127248.

Hanley PA, Arndt SK, Livesley SJ & Szota C (2021) Relating the climate envelopes of urban tree species to their drought and thermal tolerance. Science of The Total Environment

Kingsley J, Egerer M, Nuttman S, Keniger L, Pettitt P, Frantzeskaki N, Gray T, Ossola A, Lin B, Bailey A, Tracey D, Barron S and Marsh P (2021) Urban agriculture as a nature-based solution to address socio-ecological challenges in Australian cities. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 60: 6-.

Knapp S, Aronson MF, Carpenter E, Herrera-Montes A, Jung K, Kotze DJ, La Sorte FA, Lepczyk CA, MacGregor-Fors I, MacIvor JS and Moretti M, Nilon CH, Piana MR, Rega-Brodsky CC, Salisbury A, Threlfall CG, Trisos C, Williams NSG, Hahs AK (2021) A Research Agenda for Urban Biodiversity in the Global Extinction Crisis. BioScience 71(3): 268-279.

Livesley S, Bristow M, Grover S, Beringer J, Arndt S and Hutley L (2021) Soil carbon density can increase when Australian savanna is converted to pasture, but may not change under intense cropping systems. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 319.

Livesley SJ, Marchionni V, Cheung PK, Daly E and Pataki DE (2021) Water Smart Cities Increase Irrigation to Provide Cool Refuge in a Climate Crisis. Earth’s Future 9(1)1: 6-. doi:10.1029/2020EF001806

Mata L, Andersen AN, Moran-Ordonez A, Hahs AK, Backstrom A, Ives CD, Bickel D, Duncan D, Palma E, Thomas F and Cranney K et al. (2021) Indigenous plants promote insect biodiversity in urban greenspaces. Ecological Applications 17-.

Ordonez-Barona C, Bush J, Hurley J, Amati M, Juhola S, Frank S, Ritchie M, Clark C, English A, Hertzog K, Caffin M, Watt S and Livesley SJ (2021) International approaches to protecting and retaining trees on private urban land. Journal of Environmental Management: 15-.

Pritzkow C, Szota C, Williamson V and Arndt SK (2021) Previous drought exposure leads to greater drought resistance in eucalypts through changes in morphology rather than physiology. Tree Physiology.

Schrieke, D. & Farrell, C. (2021). Trait-based green roof plant selection: Water use and drought response of nine common spontaneous plants. Urban For Urban Green. doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2021.127368.

Schrieke D, Lönnqvist J, Blecken G-T, Nicholas S. G. Williams NSG and Farrell C (2021) Socio-ecological dimensions of spontaneous plants on green roofs. Frontiers in Sustainable Cities. 3:777128

Sunner N, Hirst MJ, Venn S and Williams NSG (2021) Exploring seed ecology and habitat of the vulnerable Swamp Everlasting – Xerochrysum palustre. Australasian Plant Conservation: Journal of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation 29(3):3-6

Werdin J, Conn R, Fletcher TD, Rayner JP, Williams NSG and Farrell C (2021) Biochar particle size and amendment rate are more important for water retention and weight of green roof substrates than differences in feedstock type. Ecological Engineering 171:106391. DOI:

Williams NSG, Bathgate RS, Farrell C, Lee KE, Szota C, Bush J, Johnson KA, Miller RE, Pianella A, Sargent LD, Schiller J, Williams KJH, Rayner JP (2021) Ten years of greening a wide brown land: A synthesis of Australian green roof research and roadmap forward. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 62:127179

Xu, G. -Q., Farrell, C. & Arndt, S. K. (2021). Climate of origin has no influence on drought adaptive traits and the drought responses of a widely distributed polymorphic shrub. Tree Physiol. 42: 86-96.


Clark C, Ordonez C and Livesley SJ (2020) Private tree removal, public loss: Valuing and enforcing existing tree protection mechanisms is the key to retaining urban trees on private land. Landscape and Urban Planning 203 pp 11-

Conn R, Werdin J, Rayner JP and Farrell C (2020) Green roof substrate physical properties differ between standard laboratory tests due to differences in compaction. Journal of Environmental Management261, p.110206.

Croeser T, Ordonez C, Threlfall C, Kendal D, Van Der Ree R, Callow D, Livesley S (2020) Patterns of tree removal and canopy change on public and private land in the City of Melbourne Sustainable Cities and Society. 56: 11-.

Dromgold J, Threlfall C, Norton B and Williams N (2020) Green roof and ground-level invertebrate communities are similar and are driven by building height and landscape context. Journal of Urban Ecology 6(1). doi: 10.1093/jue/juz024

Ordonez C, Threlfall CG, Livesley SJ, Kendal D, Fuller RA, Davern M, van der Ree R and Hochuli DF (2020) Decision-making of municipal urban forest managers through the lens of governance. Environmental Science & Policy 104: 136-147.

Ordonez C, Kendal D, Threlfall CG, Hochuli DF, Davern M, Fuller RA, van der Ree R and Livesley SJ (2020) How Urban Forest Managers Evaluate Management and Governance Challenges in Their Decision-Making. Forests 11(9)24-.

Pritzkow C, Szota C, Williamson VG and Arndt SK (2020) Phenotypic Plasticity of Drought Tolerance Traits in a Widespread Eucalypt (Eucalyptus obliqua). Forests 11(12) 14-.

Pritzkow C, Williamson V, Szota C, Trouve R and Arndt SK (2020) Phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation of functional traits influences intra-specific variation in hydraulic efficiency and safety. Tree Physiology: an international botanical journal 40(2):215-229.

Sanusi R and Livesley SJ (2020) London Plane trees (Platanus x acerifolia) before, during and after a heatwave: Losing leaves means less cooling benefit. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 54:6-.

Somerville P, Farrell C, May P and Livesley S (2020) Biochar and compost equally improve urban soil physical and biological properties and tree growth, with no added benefit in combination. Science of The Total Environment. Volume 706, 135736.

Thom JK, Szota C, Coutts AM, Fletcher TD and Livesley SJ (2020) Transpiration by established trees could increase the efficiency of stormwater control measures. Water Research 173:11-.

Werdin J, Fletcher TD, Rayner JP, Williams NSG and Farrell C (2020) Biochar made from low density wood has greater plant available water than biochar made from high density wood. Science of the Total Environment 705.

Xu G, Arndt SK and Farrell C (2020) Leaf Traits of Drought Tolerance for 37 Shrub Species Originating from a Moisture Gradient. Water: an open access journal.12(6):15-.

Xue M and Farrell C (2020) Use of organic wastes to create lightweight green roof substrates with increased plant-available water. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 48. doi: 10.1016/j.ufug.2019.126569


Barron S, Nitoslawski S, Wolf KL, Woo A, Desautels E and Sheppard SR (2019) Greening Blocks: A Conceptual Typology of Practical Design Interventions to Integrate Health and Climate Resilience Co-Benefits. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16(21): 21-. doi:10.3390/ijerph16214241

Bugnot AB, Hose GC, Walsh CJ, Floerl O, French K, Dafforn KA, Hanford J, Lowe EC, Hahs AK (2019) Urban impacts across realms: Making the case for inter-realm monitoring and management. Science of the Total Environment 648: 711-719

Frantzeskaki N, McPhearson T, Collier M, Kendal D, Dumitru A, Bulkeley H, Walsh C, Noble K, van Wyk E, Pinter L, Ordóñez C, Oke C, Elmqvist T (2019) Nature-based solutions for urban climate change adaptation: Linking the science, policy, and practice community for evidenced based decision-making. Biosciences. In press.

Marshall AJ, Williams NSG (2019) Communicating biophilic design: Start with the grasslands. Frontiers in Built Environment 5.

Marshall AJ, Grose MJ, and Williams NSG (2019) Footpaths, tree cut-outs and social contagion drive citizen greening in the road verge. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 44.   DOI 10.1016/j.ufug.2019.126427

Marshall AJ, Grose MJ & Williams NS (2019) From little things: More than a third of public green space is road verge. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 44. DOI 10.1016/j.ufug.2019.126423

Ordóñez-Barona C, Threlfall C, Kendal D, Hochuli DF, Davern M, Fuller RA, van der Ree R, Livesley S (2019) Urban forest governance and decision-making: A systematic review and synthesis of the perspectives of municipal managers. Landscape & Urban Planning 189:166-180.

Ordóñez et al. (2019) Developing performance indicators for nature-based solution projects in urban areas: the case of trees in revitalized commercial spaces. Cities and the Environment (CATE),

Orozco-Aguilar L, Livesley S, Brack C and Johnstone D (2019) Standing volume yield, canopy structure and allometric relationships of dominant urban trees in Melbourne, Australia. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 43. doi: 10.1016/j.ufug.2019.06.006

Soanes K, Sievers M, Chee YE, Williams NSG, Bhardwaj M, Marshall AJ, Parris KM (2019) Correcting common misconceptions to inspire conservation action in urban environments.  Conservation Biology 33(2):300-306.

Somerville P, Farrell C, May P, and Livesley S (2019) Tree water use strategies and soil type determine growth responses to biochar and compost organic amendments. Soil and Tillage Research 192:12-21.

Thom J, Szota C, Coutts A, Fletcher T and Livesley S (2019) Transpiration by established trees could increase the efficiency of stormwater control measures. Water Research Available online 8 February 2020, 115597.

Williams K, Lee K, Sargent L, Johnson K, Rayner J, Farrell C, Miller R & Williams N (2019) Appraising the psychological benefits of green roofs for city residents and workers. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 44.

Zhang Z, Szota C, Fletcher TD, Williams NSG, Farrell C (2019) Green roof storage capacity can be more important than evapotranspiration for retention performance. Journal of Environmental Management 232:404-412.


Bonneau M, Hauser CE, Williams NSG and Cousens R (2018) Optimal schedule for monitoring a plant incursion when detection and treatment success vary over time. Biological Invasions 20:741-756.

Du P, Arndt SK and Farrell C (2018) Relationships between plant drought response, traits, and climate of origin for green roof plant selection. Ecological Applications. 28:1752-1761.

Grey V, Livesley SJ, Fletcher TD and Szota C (2018) Establishing street trees in stormwater control measures can double tree growth when extended waterlogging is avoided. Landscape and Urban Planning, 178, 122-129.

Grey V, SJ Livesley, TD Fletcher and Szota C (2018) Tree pits to help mitigate runoff in dense urban areas.  Journal of Hydrology, 565: 400-410.

Kendal D, Dobbs C, Gallagher RV, Beaumont LJ, Baumann J, Williams NSG and Livesley SJ (2018) A global comparison of the climatic niches of urban and native tree populations. Global Ecology and Biogeography.

Ordóñez et al. (2018) De-icing salt contamination reduces urban tree performance in structural soil cells. Environmental Pollution 234, 562-571

Ordóñez et al. (2018) The influence of abiotic factors on street tree condition and mortality in a commercial-retail streetscape. Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 44(3):133–145.

Soanes K, Sievers M, Chee YE, Williams N, Bhardwaj M, Marshall A and Parris K (2018) Correcting common misconceptions to inspire conservation action in urban environments. Conservation Biology 2018.

Somerville P, May P and Livesley S (2018) Effects of deep tillage and municipal green waste compost amendments on soil properties and tree growth in compacted urban soils. Journal of Environmental Management, 227:365-374

Szota C, McCarthy M, Sanders G, Farrell C, Fletcher T, Arndt S & Livesley S (2018) Tree water-use strategies to improve stormwater retention performance of biofiltration systems. Water research, 144: 285-295.

Williams K, Lee K, Hartig T, Sargent L, Williams N, Johnson K (2018) Conceptualising creativity benefits of nature experience: Attention restoration and mind wandering as complementary processes. J Environmental Psychology 59: 36–45.

Zhang Z, Szota C, Fletcher TD, Williams NSG, Werdin J and Farrell (2018) Influence of plant composition and water use strategies on green roof stormwater retention. Science of the Total Environment 625:775-781.


Orozco-Aguilar L, Johnstone D, Livesley S J and Brack C (2017) The overlooked carbon loss due to decayed wood in urban trees. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 29:142-153.

Pianella A, Aye L, Chen Z and Williams N S G (2017) Substrate Depth, Vegetation and Irrigation Affect Green Roof Thermal Performance in a Mediterranean Type Climate. Sustainability 9(8):1451 doi:10.3390/su9081451

Nitschke C R, Nichols S, Allen K, Dobbs C, Livesley S J, Baker P J and Lynch Y (2017) The influence of climate and drought on urban tree growth in southeast Australia and the implications for future growth under climate change. Landscape and Urban Planning 167: 275-287.

Threlfall, C., Kendal, D. (2017) The distinct ecological and social roles that wild spaces play in urban ecosystems, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2017.05.012

Dobbs, C., Martinez-Harms, M. J., Kendal, D. (2017) The ecosystem service concept and its importance for socio-ecological systems, in Ferrini, F., Konijnendijk van den Bosch, C., Fini, A. (eds) Handbook of Urban Forestry, Routledge, New York

Harris, V., Kendal, D., Hahs, A., Threlfall, C. (2017) Green space context and vegetation complexity shape people’s preferences for urban public parks and residential gardens, Landscape Researchdoi:10.1080/01426397.2017.1302571

Ossola, A., Aponte, C., Hahs, A.K., Livesley, S.J. (2017) Contrasting effects of urban habitat complexity on metabolic functional diversity and composition of litter and soil bacterial communities. Urban Ecosystems, 20(3): 595-607.

Dobbs, C., Nitschke, C. & Kendal, D. (2017) Assessing the drivers shaping global patterns of urban vegetation landscape structure. Science of The Total Environment, 592, 171–177.

Kaspar, J., Kendal, D., Sore, R., Livesley, S.J. (2017) Random point sampling to detect gain and loss in tree canopy cover in response to urban densification. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 24: 26-34.

Mata, L., Threlfall, C.G., Williams, N.S.G., Hahs, A.K., Malipatil, M., Stork, N.E., Livesley, S.J. (2017) Conserving herbivorous and predatory insects in urban green spaces. Scientific Reports, 7, art. no. 40970.

Threlfall, C.G., Mata, L., Mackie, J.A., Hahs, A.K., Stork, N.E., Williams, N.S.G., Livesley, S.J. (2017) Increasing biodiversity in urban green spaces through simple vegetation interventions. Journal of Applied Ecology (Article in Press)

Sanusi R, Johnstone D, May P and Livesley S J (2017) Microclimate benefits that different street tree species provide to sidewalk pedestrians relate to differences in Plant Area Index. Landscape and Urban Planning 157:502-511


Pianella, A. Aye, L., Chen, Z., Williams, N.S.G. (2016) Effects of design and operating parameters on green roof thermal performance in Melbourne. 5th International Conference on Zero Energy Mass Customised Housing, Kuala Lumpur 2016,

Pianella, A., Bush, J., Chen, Z., Williams, N.S.G., Aye, L. (2016) Green roofs in Australia: review of thermal performance and associated policy development. 50th International Conference of Architectural Science Association, Adelaide 2016.

Chambers D.P., Walker C., Williams K., Rayner J., Farrell C., Butt A.-M. & Rostan-Herbert D. (2016) Engaging Students with Environmental Sustainability at a Research Intensive University: Examples of Small Successes. In: Teaching Education for Sustainable Development at University Level, pp. 205-219. Springer International Publishing.

Coutts A. M., Harris, R. J., Phan, T, Livesley, S.J. Williams, N.S.G. and. Tapper, N.J. (2016) Thermal infrared remote sensing of urban heat: hotspots, vegetation, and an assessment of techniques for use in urban planning. Remote Sensing of Environment 186, 637-651

Parmher E, Amati M, Taylor E J, Livesley S J (2016) Estimation of urban tree canopy cover using random point sampling and remote sensing methods. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 20: 160-171

Pianella, A., Clarke, R.E., Williams, N.S.G., Chen, Z., Aye, L. (2016) Steady-state and transient thermal measurements of green roof substrates. Energy and Buildings, 131: 123-131.

Hardgrove, S.J., Livesley, S.J. (2016) Applying spent coffee grounds directly to urban agriculture soils greatly reduces plant growth. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 18: 1-8.

Ossola, A., Hahs, A.K., Nash, M.A., Livesley, S.J. (2016) Habitat Complexity Enhances Comminution and Decomposition Processes in Urban Ecosystems. Ecosystems, 19 (5): 927-941.

Ossola, A., Livesley, S.J. (2016) Drivers of soil heterogeneity in the urban landscape. In Urban Landscape Ecology: Science, Policy and Practice. (Eds.) Robert A. Francis, James D.A. Millington, Michael A. Chadwick. Chapter 2, pp. 19-41.

Coutts, A.M., White, E.C., Tapper, N.J., Beringer, J., Livesley, S.J. (2016) Temperature and human thermal comfort effects of street trees across three contrasting street canyon environments. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 124: 55-68.

Baumann, J.M., Walker, K., Threlfall, C., Williams, N.S. (2016) African Carder bee,’Afranthidium (Immanthidium) repetitum'(Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): A new exotic species for Victoria. The Victorian Naturalist 133: 21.

Aronson, M.F.J., Nilon, C.H., Lepczyk, C.A., Parker, T, Warren, P.S., Cilliers, S, Goddard, M.A., Hahs, A.K., Herzog, C, Katti, M, La Sorte, F.A., Williams, N.S.G. and Zipperer, W. (2016)  Hierarchical filters determine community assembly of urban species pools. Ecology 97, 2952-2963.

Palma, E., Catford, J.A., Corlett, R.T., Duncan, R.P., Hahs, A.K., McCarthy, M.A., McDonnell, M.J., Thompson, K., Williams, N.S.G., Vesk, P.A. (2016) Functional trait changes in the floras of 11 cities across the globe in response to urbanization. Ecography 40, 875-886.

Rayner, J.P., Farrell, C., Raynor, K.J., Murphy, S.M., Williams, N.S. (2016) Plant establishment on a green roof under extreme hot and dry conditions: The importance of leaf succulence in plant selection. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 15: 6-14.

Threlfall, C.G., Williams, N.S.G., Hahs, A.K., Livesley, S.J. (2016) Approaches to urban vegetation management and the impacts on urban bird and bat assemblages. Landscape and Urban Planning 153: 28-39.

Livesley, S.J., McPherson, G.M., Calfapietra, C. (2016) The urban forest and ecosystem services: Impacts on urban water, heat, and pollution cycles at the tree, street, and city scale. Journal of Environmental Quality 45(1): 119-124.

Sanusi, R., Johnstone, D., May, P., Livesley, S.J. (2016) Street orientation and side of the street greatly influence the microclimatic benefits street trees can provide in summer. Journal of Environmental Quality 45(1): 167-174.

Livesley, S.J., Ossola, A., Threlfall, C.G., Hahs, A.K., Williams, N.S.G. (2016) Soil carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio change under tree canopy, tall grass, and turf grass areas of urban green space. Journal of Environmental Quality, 45(1): 215-223


Threlfall, C.G., Walker, K., Williams, N.S.G., Hahs, A.K., Mata, L., Stork, N., Livesley, S.J. (2015) The conservation value of urban green space habitats for Australian native bee communities. Biological Conservation, 187: 240-248

Ossola, A., Nash, M.A., Christie, F.J., Hahs, A.K., Livesley, S.J. (2015) Urban habitat complexity affects species richness but not environmental filtering of morphologically-diverse ants. PeerJ DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1356

Farrell C, Szota C, Arndt SK. Urban Plantings: ‘Living Laboratories’ for Climate Change Response. Trends in Plant Science, 2016. 20(10): 597-599.

Farrell, C., C.T.N. Cao, X.Q. Ang and J.P. Rayner, 2016. Use of water-retention additives to improve performance of green roof substrates. Acta Hort. (ISHS): 271-278.

Williams NSG, Rayner JP, Lee KE, Fletcher TD, Chen D, Szota C and F. C., 2016. Developing Australian green roofs: overview of a 5-year research program. Acta Hort (ISHS).: 345-352

Szota, C., C. Farrell, S.J. Livesley and T.D. Fletcher, 2015. Salt tolerant plants increase nitrogen removal from biofiltration systems affected by saline stormwater. Water Research.  doi:10.1016/j.watres.2015.06.024.

Richards, P.J., C. Farrell, M. Tom, N.S. Williams and T.D. Fletcher, 2015. Vegetable raingardens can produce food and reduce stormwater runoff. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening.  doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2015.06.007.

Ossola, A., Hahs, A.K., Livesley, S.J., 2015. Habitat complexity influences fine scale hydrological processes and the incidence of stormwater runoff in managed urban ecosystems. Journal of Environmental Management, 159, 1:10. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.05.002

Chisholm, R., Menge, D.N.L.; Fung, T., Williams, N.S.G. and Levin, S.A. (2015) The potential for alternative stable states in nutrient-enriched invaded grasslands. Theoretical Ecology (Accepted February 2015)

Williams, N.S.G., Hahs, A.K. and Vesk, P.A. (2015) Urbanisation, plant traits and the composition of urban floras. Perspectives in Plant Ecology Evolution and Systematics 17, 78-86. DOI: 10.1016/j.ppees.2014.10.002

Coutts A, White E, Tapper N J, Beringer J and Livesley S J (2015) Temperature and human thermal comfort effects of street trees across three contrasting street canyon environments. Theoretical and Applied Climatology DOI:10.1007/s00704-015-1409-y (accepted January 2015)

Norton B A, Coutts A, Livesley S J, Harris R J, Hunter A and Williams N S G (2015) Planning for cooler cities: prioritising the use of green infrastructure to mitigate high temperatures in urban landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning


Williams, N.S.G, Lundholm, J.T., MacIvor, J.S. (2014) Can green roofs help urban biodiversity conservation? Journal of Applied Ecology 51: 1643-1649 DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12333

La Sorte, F.A., Aronson, M.F.J., Williams, N.S.G., Celesti-Grapow, L., Cilliers, S., Clarkson, B.D., Dolan, R.W., Hipp, A., Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Pyšek, P., Siebert, S., Winter, M. (2014) Beta diversity of urban floras among European and non-European cities. Global Ecology and Biogeography, DOI: 10.1111/geb.12159

Cao, C.T., C. Farrell, P.E. Kristiansen and J.P. Rayner, 2014. Biochar makes green roof substrates lighter and improves water supply to plants. Ecological Engineering 71: 368-374.

Lee, K.E., K.J.H. Williams, L.D. Sargent, C. Farrell and N.S. Williams (2014) Living roof preference is influenced by plant characteristics and diversity. Landscape and Urban Planning 122: 152-159.

Norton, B. A., L. J. Thomson, N. S. G. Williams, and M. J. McDonnell (2014) The effect of urban ground covers on arthropods: An experiment. Urban Ecosystems 17: 77-99.

Aronson, M. F. J., F. A. La Sorte, C. H. Nilon, M. Katti, M. A. Goddard, C. A. Lepczyk, P. S. Warren, N. S. G. Williams, S. Cilliers, B. Clarkson, C. Dobbs, R. Dolan, M. Hedblom, S. Klotz, J. L. Kooijmans, I. Kühn, I. Macgregor-Fors, M. McDonnell, U. Mörtberg, P. Pyšek, S. Siebert, J. Sushinsky, P. Werner, and M. Winter (2014) A global analysis of the impacts of urbanization on bird and plant diversity reveals key anthropogenic drivers. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 281 1780: 20133330

Hunter A., Aye L., Williams N. S. G., Rayner J. P., Hes D. and Livesley S. J. (2014) Quantifying the thermal performance of green façades: a critical review. Ecological Engineering, 63: 102-113.


Berry R, Livesley S J and Aye L (2013) Tree canopy shade impacts on solar irradiance received by building walls and their surface temperature. Building and Environment 69: 91-100.

Farrell C., Ang X.Q. & Rayner J.P. (2013). Water-retention additives increase plant available water in green roof substrates. Ecological Engineering, 52, 112-118.

Farrell C., Szota C., Williams N.S.G. & Arndt S.K. (2013). High water users can be drought tolerant: using physiological traits for green roof plant selection. Plant and Soil, 1-17.

Grover S.P.P., Cohan A., Chan H.S., Livesley S.J., Beringer J. & Daly E. (2013). Occasional large emissions of nitrous oxide and methane observed in stormwater biofiltration systems. Science of the Total Environment 465:41-71

Livesley S J, Baudinette B and Glover D (2013) Rainfall interception and stem flow by eucalypt street trees – the impacts of canopy density and bark type. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, doi: 10.1016/j.ufug.2013.09.001

Luck G.W., Smallbone L., Threlfall C. & Law B. (2013). Patterns in bat functional guilds across multiple urban centres in south-eastern Australia. Landscape Ecology, 28, 455 – 469.

May P.B., Livesley S.J. & Shears I. (2013). Managing and monitoring tree health and soil water status during extreme drought in Melbourne, Victoria. Arboriculture and Urban Forestry, 39, 136-145.

Norton B.A., Thomson L.J., Williams N.S.G. & McDonnell M.J. (2013). The effect of urban ground covers on arthropods: An experiment. Urban Ecosystems, 1-23.

Threlfall C., Law B. & Banks P.B. (2013). Odour cues influence predation risk at artificial bat roosts in urban bushland. Biology Letters, 9.

Threlfall C.G., Law B. & Banks P.B. (2013). Roost selection in suburban bushland by the urban sensitive bat Nyctophilus gouldiJournal of Mammalogy, 94, 307-319.

Threlfall C.G., Law B. & Banks P.B. (2013). The urban matrix and artificial light restricts the nightly ranging behaviour of Gould’s long-eared bat (Nyctophilus gouldi). Austral Ecology, in press.


Farrell C., Mitchell R.E., Szota C., Rayner J.P. & Williams N.S.G. (2012). Green roofs for hot and dry climates: Interacting effects of plant water use, succulence and substrate. Ecological Engineering, 49, 270-276.

Kendal D., Williams K.J.H. & Williams N.S.G. (2012). Plant traits link people’s plant preferences to the composition of their gardens. Landscape and Urban Planning, 105, 34-42.

Kendal D., Williams N.S.G. & Williams K.J.H. (2012). A cultivated environment: Exploring the global distribution of plants in gardens, parks and streetscapes. Urban Ecosystems, 15, 637-652.

Kendal D., Williams N.S.G. & Williams K.J.H. (2012). Drivers of diversity and tree cover in gardens, parks and streetscapes in an Australian city. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 11, 257-265.

Threlfall C.G., Law B. & Banks P.B. (2012). Influence of landscape structure and human modifications on insect biomass and bat foraging activity in an urban landscape. PLOS one, 7, e38800.

Threlfall C.G., Law B. & Banks P.B. (2012). Sensitivity of insectivorous bats to urbanization: Implications for suburban conservation planning. Biological Conservation, 146, 41-52.


Duncan R.P., Clemants S.E., Corlett R.T., Hahs A.K., McCarthy M.A., McDonnell M.J., Schwartz M.W., Thompson K., Vesk P.A. & Williams N.S.G. (2011). Plant traits and extinction in urban areas: A meta-analysis of 11 cities. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 20, 509-519.

Threlfall C.G., Law B., Penman T. & Banks P.B. (2011). Ecological processes in urban landscapes: mechanisms influencing the distribution and activity of insectivorous bats. Ecography, 34, 814-826.


Kendal D., Williams N.S.G. & Williams K.J.H. (2010). Harnessing diversity in gardens through individual decision makers. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 25, 201-202.

Livesley S.J., Dougherty B.J., Smith A.J., Navaud D., Wylie L.J. & Arndt S.K. (2010). Soil-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in urban garden systems: Impact of irrigation, fertiliser and mulch. Urban Ecosystems, 13, 273-293.

Rayner J.P., Raynor K.J. & Williams N.S.G. (2010). Façade greening: A case study from Melbourne, Australia. ACTA Horticulturae, 881, 709-713.

Williams N.S.G., Hughes R.E., Jones N.M., Bradbury D.A. & Rayner J.P. (2010). The performance of native and exotic species for extensive green roofs in Melbourne, Australia. ACTA Horticulturae, 881, 689-696.

Williams N.S.G., Rayner J.P. & Raynor K.J. (2010). Green roofs for a wide brown land: Opportunities and barriers for rooftop greening in Australia. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 9, 245-251.


Hahs A.K., McDonnell M.J., McCarthy M.A., Vesk P.A., Corlett R.T., Norton B.A., Clemants S.E., Duncan R.P., Thompson K., Schwartz M.W. & Williams N.S.G. (2009). A global synthesis of plant extinction rates in urban areas. Ecology Letters, 12, 1165-1173.

Williams N.S.G., Schwartz M.W., Vesk P.A., McCarthy M.A., Hahs A.K., Clemants S.E., Corlett R.T., Duncan R.P., Norton B.A., Thompson K. & McDonnell M.J. (2009). A conceptual framework for predicting the effects of urban environments on floras. Journal of Ecology, 97,

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